Oceanography The Official Magazine of
The Oceanography Society
Volume 24 Issue 03

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Volume 24, No. 3
Pages 318 - 320

OpenAccess

Black Swans, Wicked Problems, and Science During Crises

Gary E. Machlis Marcia K. McNutt
First Paragraph

Oceanic resources face challenges that are significant and widespread, including (but not limited to) overharvesting, climate change, selected stock collapse, coral reef decline, species extinction, pollution, and more. These challenges are the focus of much ocean science, which is helping to inform policy and guide management actions. The steady growth of research results and the emergence of new research needs have been systematically reviewed through periodic assessments, such as those of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (Valdés et al., 2010).

Citation

Machlis, G.E., and M.K. McNutt. 2011. Ocean policy: Black swans, wicked problems, and science during crises. Oceanography 24(3):318–320, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2011.89.

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