Biotechnology depends on exploiting information stored in genes and their component DNA. Genes of terrestrial organisms have been the primary source of information for the biochemical products and bioprocessing schemes that form the foundation of biotechnology—antibiotic production and water purification, for example. While terrestrial organisms exhibit great species diversity, marine organisms represent greater phylogenetic diversity. That is, most of the major classes of the Earth’s plants, animals, and microorganisms are primarily or exclusively marine. Thus marine organisms represent sources of unique genetic information. Yet few have been used in biotechnology by either traditional methods of fermentation or modern biomolecular means because the research base is meager. However, results from programs of research in marine biotechnology, including those in Japan, are exposing rich fields of opportunity.