At the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, protecting marine biodiversity while supporting sustainable uses is a multipronged effort involving research, education, and enforcement. Located on the NE Atlantic continental shelf at the mouth of Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay (Fig. 1), Stellwagen is one of 12 National Marine Sanctuaries (NMSs) established and maintained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (U.S. Department of Commerce) for stewardship of significant natural and historical resources. On Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, the 12 Sanctuaries are as diverse as the species they contain, including extensive coral reefs, deep submarine canyons, productive bank environments, and many other historic resources and coastal habitats. With its high productivity, importance as a fishing ground for New England groundfish and bluefin tuna, and the presence of great whales, Stellwagen Bank offers a rich mix of species and stewardship challenges.